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    • Article
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    The deep waters of land reform : Land, water and conservation area claims in the Olifants Basin, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Liebrand, J., Zwarteveen, Margreet Z., Wester, Philippus, van Koppen, Barbara
    Water International, 2012, Vol.37(7), pp.773-8060 [Revue évaluée par les pairs]
    NARCIS (National Academic Research and Collaborations Information System)
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    Titre: The deep waters of land reform : Land, water and conservation area claims in the Olifants Basin, Limpopo Province, South Africa
    Auteur: Liebrand, J.; Zwarteveen, Margreet Z.; Wester, Philippus; van Koppen, Barbara
    Sujet: Water Reform ; Land Reform ; Nature Conservation ; Water Rights ; Olifants Basin ; South Africa
    Description: Through investigating the reactions of commercial farmers to land and water reforms in the Trichardtsdal-Ofcolaco area, Limpopo Province, Olifants Basin, South Africa, from 1997 to 2006, it is shown that water claims are key to land redistribution processes, and that commercial farmers make strategic use of arguments for nature conservation and ecological stewardship to defend their claims to water. Given these observations, caution is warranted with respect to the implementation of land and water reforms as separate policy packages; it may be more effective to design water and conservation policies as an integral part of land reform programmes.
    Fait partie de: Water International, 2012, Vol.37(7), pp.773-8060
    Identifiant: (ISSN); 0250-8060 (ISSN)

    • Article
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    Roman water law in rural Africa: the unfinished business of colonial dispossession

    Van Koppen, Barbara, Van Der Zaag, Pieter, Manzungu, Emmanuel, Tapela, Barbara
    Water International, 02 January 2014, Vol.39(1), p.49-62 [Revue évaluée par les pairs]
    Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), Taylor & Francis Open Access (Taylor & Francis Group)
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    Titre: Roman water law in rural Africa: the unfinished business of colonial dispossession
    Auteur: Van Koppen, Barbara; Van Der Zaag, Pieter; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Tapela, Barbara
    Editeur: Routledge
    Sujet: Sub-Saharan Africa ; Colonization ; Legal Pluralism ; Water Law ; Water Resource Management
    Description: This paper discusses four questions about the recent water law reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa, which strengthen permit systems. First, do permit systems continue to dispossess rural small-scale users, as intended by European colonizers who introduced principles of Roman law? Second, is it wrong to assume that one can convert one legal system (customary water rights) into another legal system (permits) in the short term? Third, do current permit systems discriminate against small-scale users? And lastly, do fiscal measures ingrained in permits foster rent seeking and strengthen water resources as a commodity for nationals and foreigners who can pay? As all the answers are positive, the paper concludes by recommending measures to recognize and protect small-scale water users and render state regulation more realistic.
    Fait partie de: Water International, 02 January 2014, Vol.39(1), p.49-62
    Identifiant: 0250-8060 (ISSN); 1941-1707 (E-ISSN); 10.1080/02508060.2013.863636 (DOI)

    • Article
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    The 'trickle down' of IWRM: A case study of local-level realities in the Inkomati Water Management Area, South Africa

    Denby, Kristi, Movik, Synne, Mehta, Lyla, Van Koppen, Barbara
    BIBSYS Brage
    Disponible
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    Titre: The 'trickle down' of IWRM: A case study of local-level realities in the Inkomati Water Management Area, South Africa
    Auteur: Denby, Kristi; Movik, Synne; Mehta, Lyla; Van Koppen, Barbara
    Date: 2016
    Description: The historical legacy in South Africa of apartheid and the resulting discriminatory policies and power imbalances are critical to understanding how water is managed and allocated, and how people participate in designated water governance structures. The progressive post-apartheid National Water Act (NWA) is the principal legal instrument related to water governance which has broadly embraced the principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). This translation of IWRM into the South African context and, in particular, the integration of institutions related to land and water have faced many challenges due to the political nature of water and land reforms, and the tendency of governmental departments to work in silos. The paper explores the dynamics surrounding the implementation of IWRM in the Inkomati Water Management Area, and the degree of integration between the parallel land and water reform processes. It also looks at what these reforms mean to black farmers’ access to water for their sugar cane crops at the regional (basin) and local levels. The empirical material highlights the discrepancies between a progressive IWRM-influenced policy on paper and the actual realities on the ground. The paper argues that the decentralisation and integration aspects of IWRM in South Africa have somewhat failed to take off in the country and what 'integrated' actually entails is unclear. Furthermore, efforts to implement the NWA and IWRM i n South Africa have been fraught with challenges in practice, because the progressive policy did not fully recognise the complex historical context, and the underlying inequalities in knowledge, power and resource access.
    publishedVersion

    • Article
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    The impact of investment in smallholder irrigation schemes on irrigation expansion and crop productivity in Malawi

    Nhamo, Luxon, Matchaya, Greenwell, Nhemachena, Charles, van Koppen, Barbara
    2016
    AgEcon Search: Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics
    Disponible
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    Titre: The impact of investment in smallholder irrigation schemes on irrigation expansion and crop productivity in Malawi
    Auteur: Nhamo, Luxon; Matchaya, Greenwell; Nhemachena, Charles; van Koppen, Barbara
    Sujet: Crop Production/Industries ; Land Economics/Use ; Agriculture ; Irrigation ; Smallholder Farmers ; Crop Productivity ; Water Resources ; Agriculture
    Description: Reliance on rainfall for agriculture and increased climate change and variability pose growing production risks in developing countries. Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is dominated by smallholder farmers who depend mainly on rain-fed agriculture, putting food security at both household and national levels at risk, especially in the event of drought. Investment in smallholder irrigation becomes a priority in developing countries if food security and national development goals are to be met, as their economies are agro-based. This study evaluates the impact of investment in smallholder irrigation schemes in Malawi on improving crop production and productivity in comparison with rain-fed agriculture. The area under smallholder irrigation schemes increased from 15 988 ha in 2003 to about 42 986 ha in 2011, contributing immensely to national food production. Irrigated maize production increased from 78 159 tons in 2000 to 544 378 tons in 2013.
    Fait partie de: 2016

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    Titre: Emergence, Interpretations and Translations of IWRM in South Africa ; Emergence, Interpretations and Translations of IWRM in South Africa
    Auteur: Movik, Synne; Mehta, Lyla; Van Koppen, Barbara; Denby, Kristi
    Date: 2016
    Description: South Africa is often regarded to be at the forefront of water reform, based on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) ideas. This paper explores how the idea of IWRM emerged in South Africa, its key debates and interpretations and how it has been translated. It maps out the history, main events, key people, and implementation efforts through a combination of reviews of available documents and in - depth semi-structured interviews with key actors. While South Africa sought to draw on experiences from abroad when drawing up its new legislation towards the end of the 1990s, the seeds of IWRM were already present since the 1970s. What emerges is a picture of multiple efforts to get IWRM to 'work' in the South African context, but these efforts failed to take sufficient account of the South African history of deep structural inequalities, the legacy of the hydraulic mission, and the slowness of water reallocation to redress past injustices. The emphasis on institutional structures being aligned with hydrological boundaries has formed a major part of how IWRM has been interpreted and conceptualised, and it has turned out to become a protracted power struggle reflecting the tensions between centralised and decentralised management.
    Emergence, Interpretations and Translations of IWRM in South Africa
    publishedVersion

    • Article
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    Emergence, Interpretations and Translations of IWRM in South Africa

    Movik, Synne, Mehta, Lyla, Van Koppen, Barbara, Denby, Kristi
    BIBSYS Brage
    Disponible
    Plus…
    Titre: Emergence, Interpretations and Translations of IWRM in South Africa
    Auteur: Movik, Synne; Mehta, Lyla; Van Koppen, Barbara; Denby, Kristi
    Date: 2016
    Description: South Africa is often regarded to be at the forefront of water reform, based on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) ideas. This paper explores how the idea of IWRM emerged in South Africa, its key debates and interpretations and how it has been translated. It maps out the history, main events, key people, and implementation efforts through a combination of reviews of available documents and in - depth semi-structured interviews with key actors. While South Africa sought to draw on experiences from abroad when drawing up its new legislation towards the end of the 1990s, the seeds of IWRM were already present since the 1970s. What emerges is a picture of multiple efforts to get IWRM to 'work' in the South African context, but these efforts failed to take sufficient account of the South African history of deep structural inequalities, the legacy of the hydraulic mission, and the slowness of water reallocation to redress past injustices. The emphasis on institutional structures being aligned with hydrological boundaries has formed a major part of how IWRM has been interpreted and conceptualised, and it has turned out to become a protracted power struggle reflecting the tensions between centralised and decentralised management.
    publishedVersion

    • Article
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    Winners and Losers of IWRM in Tanzania

    Van Koppen, Barbara, Tarimo, Andrew K., Van Eeden, Aurelia, Manzungu, Emmanuel, Sumuni, Philip Mathew
    BIBSYS Brage
    Disponible
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    Titre: Winners and Losers of IWRM in Tanzania
    Auteur: Van Koppen, Barbara; Tarimo, Andrew K.; Van Eeden, Aurelia; Manzungu, Emmanuel; Sumuni, Philip Mathew
    Date: 2016
    Description: This paper focuses on the application of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Tanzania. It asks: how did IWRM affect the rural and fast-growing majority of smallholder farmers' access to water which contributes directly to poverty alleviation and employment creation in a country where poverty and joblessness are high? Around 1990, there were both a strong government-led infrastructure development agenda and IWRM ingredients in place, including cost-recovery of state services aligning with the Structural Adjustment Programmes, water management according to basin boundaries and the dormant colonial water rights (permits) system. After the 1990s, the World Bank and other donors promoted IWRM with a strong focus on hydroelectric power development, River Basin Water Boards, transformation of the water right system into a taxation tool, and assessment of environmental flows. These practices became formalised in the National Water Policy (2002) and in the Water Resources Management Act (2009). Activities in the name of IWRM came to be closely associated with the post-2008 surge in large-scale land and water deals. Analysing 25 years of IWRM, the paper identifies the processes and identities of the losers (smallholders and - at least partially - the government) and the winners (large-scale water users, including recent investors). We conclude that, overall, IWRM harmed smallholders' access to water and rendered them more vulnerable to poverty and unemployment.

    • Conference Proceeding
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    Women’s access to Multiple-use Water Services (MUS): an agenda for African and South Asian countries [Abstract only]

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie, van Koppen, Barbara
    International Water Management Institute>IWMI Conference Proceedings, 2012
    AgEcon Search: Research in Agricultural and Applied Economics
    Disponible
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    Titre: Women’s access to Multiple-use Water Services (MUS): an agenda for African and South Asian countries [Abstract only]
    Auteur: Amerasinghe, Priyanie; van Koppen, Barbara
    Sujet: Agribusiness ; Consumer/Household Economics ; Industrial Organization ; International Development ; Multiple Use ; Water Use ; Water Resources Development ; Women ; Households
    Fait partie de: International Water Management Institute>IWMI Conference Proceedings, 2012

    • Article
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    Redressing inequities of the past from a historical perspective : the case of the Olifants basin, South Africa

    Van Koppen, Barbara
    Water SA : Special HELP Edition : Special Issue 4, 2008, Vol.34, pp.432-438 [Revue évaluée par les pairs]
    African Electronic OA Journals (Sabinet SA ePublications)
    Disponible
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    Titre: Redressing inequities of the past from a historical perspective : the case of the Olifants basin, South Africa
    Auteur: Van Koppen, Barbara
    Sujet: Water Policy ; Water Law ; History ; Basin Management ; Livelihoods ; Poverty ; Gender ; Olifants Basin ; South Africa
    Description: This paper analyses the continuities and changes in water management in the Olifants basin after the first decade of implementation of the National Water Act (1998). By taking a historical perspective of the basin development trajectory, the paper shows how the White minority rulers, who exerted power until 1994, systematically denied historically disadvantaged individuals (HDIs) the right to become significant water users, let alone 'economically viable' water users. In contrast, White water users undertook major water resource development, which, by the 1970s resulted in the emergence of a 'White water economy'. Under the new dispensation (post-1994), the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) took a two-pronged approach in the Olifants basin and elsewhere for redressing the inequities of the past. On the one hand, from the central top down, it opened up the 'White water economy' into a water economy serving especially 'economically viable water users', who rapidly ceased to be White only. As reflected in a range of new measures taken in the Olifants basin, in this new water economy DWAF better targets bulk domestic supplies to HDIs, has more public participation, and is strengthening its regulatory role in terms of cost-recovery, environmental issues, and pollution prevention. On the other hand DWAF seeks to fill the enormous backlog in water services delivery to HDIs, not only for domestic water uses, but increasingly also for productive uses. The major challenge of bottom-up coordinated service delivery for multiple uses through the newly established Provincial and Local Governments and the transforming line agencies is addressed under the recently launched Water for Growth and Development Initiative.
    Fait partie de: Water SA : Special HELP Edition : Special Issue 4, 2008, Vol.34, pp.432-438
    Identifiant: 03784738 (ISSN)

    • Article
    Sélectionner

    Redressing inequities of the past from a historical perspective: The case of the Olifants basin, South Africa

    van Koppen, Barbara
    Water SA, 01 April 2008, Vol.34(4), pp.432-438 [Revue évaluée par les pairs]
    SciELO
    Disponible
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    Titre: Redressing inequities of the past from a historical perspective: The case of the Olifants basin, South Africa
    Auteur: van Koppen, Barbara
    Sujet: Water Resources ; Water Policy ; Water Law ; History ; Basin Management ; Livelihoods ; Poverty ; Gender ; Olifants Basin ; South Africa
    Description: This paper analyses the continuities and changes in water management in the Olifants basin after the first decade of implementation of the National Water Act (1998). By taking a historical perspective of the basin development trajectory, the paper shows how the White minority rulers, who exerted power until 1994, systematically denied historically disadvantaged individuals (HDIs) the right to become significant water users, let alone 'economically viable' water users. In contrast, White water users undertook major water resource development, which, by the 1970s resulted in the emergence of a 'White water economy'. Under the new dispensation (post-1994), the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) took a two-pronged approach in the Olifants basin and elsewhere for redressing the inequities of the past. On the one hand, from the central top down, it opened up the 'White water economy' into a water economy serving especially 'economically viable water users', who rapidly ceased to be White only. As reflected in a range of new measures taken in the Olifants basin, in this new water economy DWAF better targets bulk domestic supplies to HDIs, has more public participation, and is strengthening its regulatory role in terms of cost-recovery, environmental issues, and pollution prevention. On the other hand DWAF seeks to fill the enormous backlog in water services delivery to HDIs, not only for domestic water uses, but increasingly also for productive uses. The major challenge of bottom-up coordinated service delivery for multiple uses through the newly established Provincial and Local Governments and the transforming line agencies is addressed under the recently launched Water for Growth and Development Initiative.
    Fait partie de: Water SA, 01 April 2008, Vol.34(4), pp.432-438
    Identifiant: 1816-7950 (ISSN)