Titre: The livelihood impacts of oil palm: smallholders in Indonesia Auteur:Rist, Lucy; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice Sujet:Agriculture ; Agroforestry ; Elaeis guineensis ; Income ; Land tenure ; Livelihood ; Oil palm ; Rubber ; Rural development ; Shifting cultivation Description:
The biodiversity and climate consequences of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis ) expansion across South East Asia have received considerable attention. The human side of the issue, highlighted with reports of negative livelihood outcomes and rights abuses by oil palm companies, has also led to controversy. Oil palm related conflicts have been widely documented in Indonesia yet uptake by farmers has also been extensive. An assessment of the livelihood impacts of oil palm development, including sources of conflict, is needed to shed light on the apparent contradiction between these reports and the evident enthusiasm of farmers to join the oil palm craze thereby informing future expansion. We assessed the impact of oil palm development on the economic wellbeing of rural farmers in Indonesia. We found that many smallholders have benefited substantially from the higher returns to land and labour afforded by oil palm but district authorities and smallholder cooperatives play key roles in the realisation of benefits. Conflicts between communities and companies have resulted almost entirely from lack of transparency, the absence of free, prior, and informed consent and unequal benefit sharing, and have been exacerbated by the absence of clear land rights. We make specific recommendations to improve the present situation and foster the establishment of smallholder friendly production regimes. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia is set to continue. If environmental standards can be raised and policy interventions targeted at the broader social impacts of land development this expansion may be achieved to the significant benefit of large numbers of rural smallholders.
Fait partie de:
Biodiversity and Conservation, 2010, Vol.19(4), pp.1009-1024
0960-3115 (ISSN); 1572-9710 (E-ISSN); 10.1007/s10531-010-9815-z (DOI)
Unexpected Consequences: Wildlife Conservation and Territorial Conflict in Northern Kenya
Human Ecology, 2012, Vol.40(3), pp.415-425
[Revue évaluée par les pairs]
Titre: Factors constraining and enabling agroforestry adoption in Viet Nam: a multi-level policy analysis Auteur:Simelton, Elisabeth; Catacutan, Delia; Dao, Thu; Dam, Bac; Le, Thinh Sujet:Agroforestry ; Policy incentives ; Land tenure ; Monoculture ; Policy dialogue ; Extension Description:
Agroforestry is known to have multiple economic and environmental benefits. Despite this, the adoption of agroforestry in Viet Nam is limited both in extent and diversity of components and practices. Our study identified gaps for agroforestry adoption in current policies and policy implementation. National policy and provincial instructions and decisions were reviewed and discussed during ten stakeholders’ consultation workshops. The review and workshops concluded that there were no specific national and few provincial specific policies promoting agroforestry. In addition, the segregation of policies into agriculture and forestry, promoted monoculture practices and discouraged the integration of mixed annual and perennial tree species. Completing the forestland allocation process was considered essential for long-term investment on land and providing collateral for loans. More holistic policies, such as a provincial strategy for agroforestry development that would enable flexible integration of agriculture, forestry and livestock were perceived to be more effective and inclusive to poor and non-poor farmers. Specific cross-cutting budget allocation would be necessary for capacity building, upscaling agroforestry models, procurement of high-quality inputs, and establishing post-harvest processing and marketing investments.
Fait partie de:
Agroforestry Systems, 2017, Vol.91(1), pp.51-67
0167-4366 (ISSN); 1572-9680 (E-ISSN); 10.1007/s10457-016-9906-2 (DOI)
Titre: Bringing Agroforestry Technology to Farmers in the Philippines: Identifying Constraints to the Success of Extension Activities Using Systems Modelling Auteur:Baynes, Jack; Herbohn, John; Russell, Iean; Smith, Carl Sujet:Self-efficacy ; Harvest certainty ; Land tenure ; Bayesian belief networks Description:
This paper presents a systems modelling approach to evaluating the success of an agroforestry extension program in Leyte, the Philippines. During the program, variables which are intrinsic to farmers’ socio-economic and farming systems were found to have influenced the uptake and acceptance of extension advice. Evaluation of the program therefore depended on identifying the variables and their interdependencies and assessing their relative influence on program outputs. For this purpose, a systems approach which encourages breaking systems into component variables, but also acknowledges the context of problems, assisted construction of models. Using both empirical data collected during program activities and input from stakeholders, Bayesian Belief Network software was used to predict critical success factors for four aspects of the overall extension system, namely recruitment, use of written extension materials, farmers’ self-efficacy and retention of participating farmers throughout the program. A key predicted constraint to program recruitment is farmers’ perception of harvest security and while this variable can be partly addressed through dissemination of information on harvesting legislation, title security cannot. Differing levels of farmers’ education result in differences in predicted reading ability, comprehension of extension literature and possible misconstrual of information. The variable most critical to the development of farmers’ self-efficacy is extended on-farm technical assistance and support.
Fait partie de:
Small-scale Forestry, 2011, Vol.10(3), pp.357-376
1873-7617 (ISSN); 1873-7854 (E-ISSN); 10.1007/s11842-010-9153-8 (DOI)
Long-term changes in the spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease hotspots in Zimbabwe
Swiswa, Samuel, Masocha, Mhosisi, Pfukenyi, Davies, Dhliwayo, Solomon, Chikerema, Silvester
Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2017, Vol.49(1), pp.195-199
[Revue évaluée par les pairs]