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    • Article
    Sélectionner

    Generalisation of Word-Object Associations: A Modelling Account

    Mayor, Julien
    Somerville, MA, Cascadilla Press
    Chandlee, J.; Franchini, M.; Lord, S, and Rheiner, G.-M., 31/10-02/11/2008, Boston (USA), BUCLD 33: Proceedings of the 33rd annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 343-354
    2009
    Disponible
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    Titre: Generalisation of Word-Object Associations: A Modelling Account
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien
    Editeur: Somerville, MA, Cascadilla Press
    Date: 2009
    Collection: BUCLD: Proceedings of the Boston University Conference on Language Development 33
    Fait partie de: Chandlee, J.; Franchini, M.; Lord, S, and Rheiner, G.-M., 31/10-02/11/2008, Boston (USA), BUCLD 33: Proceedings of the 33rd annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 343-354
    Identifiant: 978-1-57473-194-1 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    Are Scientists Nearsighted Gamblers ? The Misleading Nature of Impact Factors

    Mayor, Julien
    Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 2010, 1, 215
    2010
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    Titre: Are Scientists Nearsighted Gamblers ? The Misleading Nature of Impact Factors
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien
    Date: 2010
    Sujet: Impact factor - Publication metrics
    Fait partie de: Frontiers in Quantitative Psychology and Measurement, 2010, 1, 215

    • Article
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    A mathematical insight into the size of infant vocabularies

    Mayor, Julien, Plunkett, Kim
    Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Taatgen, N. and van Rijn, H, July 29-August 1, 2009, Amsterdam (Netherlands), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 437-442
    2009
    Disponible
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    Titre: A mathematical insight into the size of infant vocabularies
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim
    Editeur: Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Date: 2009
    Sujet: Vocabulary size - early word learning - vocabulary overlap - vocabulary spurt
    Description: For the last twenty years, many researchers interested in language acquisition have quantified the receptive and productive vocabulary of infants using CDIs – checklists of words filled in by the caregiver. While it is generally accepted that the caregiver can reliably say whether the infant knows and/or produces a given word, we lack an estimate for words that are not listed on CDI. In this study, we provide a mathematical model providing a link between CDI reports and a more plausible estimate of vocabulary size. The model is constrained by statistical data collected from a population of infants and is validated on a longitudinal study comparing diary report with CDI measures.
    Fait partie de: Taatgen, N. and van Rijn, H, July 29-August 1, 2009, Amsterdam (Netherlands), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 437-442
    Identifiant: 978-0-9768318-5-3 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    Can Neural Adaptation Explain Word Choice ?

    Klinger, Jörn, Mayor, Julien
    Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C. & Shipley, T.F., July 20-23, 2011, Boston (USA), Expanding the Space of Cognitive Science. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 1006-1011
    2011
    Disponible
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    Titre: Can Neural Adaptation Explain Word Choice ?
    Auteur: Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien
    Editeur: Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Date: 2011
    Sujet: Self-Organizing Maps - Neural Adaptation - Language Production
    Description: Speakers refer to objects using terms on various levels of description. Labeling a poodle, they use the subordinate term “poodle” or the basic term “dog”. Our model attributes these effects to visual context, relying on the domain general mechanism of neural adaptation. Two SOMs represent visual and auditory categories. Word learning is modeled via simultaneous presentation of item and word form and the creation of Hebbian synapses. Neural adaptation causes a decrease of activation in repeatedly activated nodes. We predicted that as a result of this, when presented alone or alongside a distractor from another basic category, an item will be referred to by its basic term, while the presence of a distractor from the same basic category will induce a shift to the target’s subordinate label. Three simulations taking into account the relative frequency of an item's basic and subordinate level labels supported this hypothesis.
    Fait partie de: Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C. & Shipley, T.F., July 20-23, 2011, Boston (USA), Expanding the Space of Cognitive Science. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 1006-1011
    Identifiant: 978-0-9768318-7-7 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    Constraints on generalisation in a self-organising model of early word learning

    Mayor, Julien, Plunkett, Kim
    Singapore, World Scientific Publ.
    French, R.M. & Thomas, E., From Associations To Rules. Connectionist Models of Behavior and Cognition, 66-77
    2008
    Disponible
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    Titre: Constraints on generalisation in a self-organising model of early word learning
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim
    Editeur: Singapore, World Scientific Publ.
    Date: 2008
    Collection: Progress in Neural Processing 17
    Description: We investigate from a modelling perspective how lexical structure can be grounded in the underlying speech and visual categories that infants have already acquired. We demonstrate that the formation of well-structured categories is an important prerequisite for successful generalisation of cross-modal associations such that even after a single presentation of a word-object pair, the model is able to generalise to other members of the category. This ability to generalise a label to objects of like kinds, commonly referred to as the taxonomic assumption, is an emergent property of the model and provides an explanatory framework for understanding aspects of infant word learning. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of constraints imposed on the Hebbian associations in the cross-modal training phase and identify the conditions under which generalisation does not take place.
    Fait partie de: French, R.M. & Thomas, E., From Associations To Rules. Connectionist Models of Behavior and Cognition, 66-77
    Identifiant: 978-981-279-731-5 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    How many words do infants know, really ?

    Mayor, Julien, Plunkett, Kim
    Singapore, World Scientific Publ.
    Mayor, J., Ruh, N. & Plunkett, K., Connectionist Models Of Behaviour And Cognition II, 325-336
    2009
    Disponible
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    Titre: How many words do infants know, really ?
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim
    Editeur: Singapore, World Scientific Publ.
    Date: 2009
    Collection: Progress in Neural Processing 18
    Description: For the last twenty years, many researchers interested in language acquisition have quantified the receptive and productive vocabulary of infants using CDIs – checklists of words filled in by the caregiver. While it is generally accepted that the caregiver can reliably say whether the infant knows and/or produces a given word, we lack an estimate for words that are not listed on CDI. In this study, we provide a mathematical model providing a link between CDI reports and a more plausible estimate of vocabulary size. The model is constrained by statistical data collected from a population of infants and is validated on a longitudinal study comparing diary report with CDI measures.
    Fait partie de: Mayor, J., Ruh, N. & Plunkett, K., Connectionist Models Of Behaviour And Cognition II, 325-336
    Identifiant: 978-981-283-422-5 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    Online processing of multiple inputs in a sparsely-connected recurrent neural network

    Mayor, Julien, Gerstner, Wulfram
    Berlin, Springer
    Kaynak, O.; Alpaydin, E.; Oja, E.; Xu, L., June 26-29, 2003, Istanbul (Turkey), Artificial Neural Networks and Neural Information Processing - ICANN/ICONIP, 839-845
    2003
    Disponible
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    Titre: Online processing of multiple inputs in a sparsely-connected recurrent neural network
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Gerstner, Wulfram
    Editeur: Berlin, Springer
    Date: 2003
    Collection: Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2714/2003
    Description: The storage and short-term memory capacities of recurrent neural networks of spiking neurons are investigated. We demonstrate that it is possible to process online many superimposed streams of input. This is despite the fact that the stored information is spread throughout the network. We show that simple output structures are powerful enough to extract the diffuse information from the network. The dimensional blow up, which is crucial in kernel methods, is efficiently achieved by the dynamics of the network itself.
    Fait partie de: Kaynak, O.; Alpaydin, E.; Oja, E.; Xu, L., June 26-29, 2003, Istanbul (Turkey), Artificial Neural Networks and Neural Information Processing - ICANN/ICONIP, 839-845
    Identifiant: 978-3-540-40408-8 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    Signal buffering in random networks of spiking neurons: Microscopic versus macroscopic phenomena

    Mayor, Julien, Gerstner, Wulfram
    Physical Review. E, 2005, 72, 5
    2005
    Disponible
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    Titre: Signal buffering in random networks of spiking neurons: Microscopic versus macroscopic phenomena
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Gerstner, Wulfram
    Date: 2005
    Description: In randomly connected networks of pulse-coupled elements a time-dependent input signal can be buffered over a short time. We studied the signal buffering properties in simulated networks as a function of the networks' state, characterized by both the Lyapunov exponent of the microscopic dynamics and the macroscopic activity derived from mean-field theory. If all network elements receive the same signal, signal buffering over delays comparable to the intrinsic time constant of the network elements can be explained by macroscopic properties and works best at the phase transition to chaos. However, if only 20% of the network units receive a common time-dependent signal, signal buffering properties improve and can no longer be attributed to the macroscopic dynamics.
    Fait partie de: Physical Review. E, 2005, 72, 5

    • Article
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    How many Neurons for your ‘Grandmother’ ? Three Arguments for Localised Representations

    Mayor, Julien, Plunkett, Kim
    Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Miyake, N.; Peebles, D. & Cooper, R.P., August 1-4, 2012, Sapporo (Japan), Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1990-1995
    2012
    Disponible
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    Titre: How many Neurons for your ‘Grandmother’ ? Three Arguments for Localised Representations
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim
    Editeur: Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Date: 2012
    Sujet: Distributed representations - Local representations - Self-organising maps - Synaptic pruning - Brain metabolism
    Description: In a recent article, Bowers (2009) argues that local representations are more consistent with neuro-biological data than distributed representations, as typically generated in Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) models. We present three reasons why localised neural representations are good candidates for supporting mental representations, as they provide a solution to the trade-off between combinatorial arguments that favour fully-distributed representations and metabolic arguments which favour localist representations.
    Fait partie de: Miyake, N.; Peebles, D. & Cooper, R.P., August 1-4, 2012, Sapporo (Japan), Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1990-1995
    Identifiant: 978-0-9768318-8-4 (ISBN)

    • Article
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    Going with TRACE beyond Infant Mispronunciation Studies: Lexical Networks and Phoneme Competition

    Mayor, Julien, Plunkett, Kim
    Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Miyake, N.; Peebles, D. & Cooper, R.P., August 1-4, 2012, Sapporo (Japan), Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 737-742
    2012
    Disponible
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    Titre: Going with TRACE beyond Infant Mispronunciation Studies: Lexical Networks and Phoneme Competition
    Auteur: Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim
    Editeur: Austin, TX, Cognitive Science Society
    Date: 2012
    Sujet: Word learning - Speech perception - Language acquisition - Inhibition
    Description: The TRACE model of speech perception (McClelland & Elman, 1986) is used to simulate graded sensitivity to mispronunciations of familiar words as reported by White and Morgan (2008). Our simulations predict that phoneme or lexical competition may be absent in the mental lexicons of the 19-month-old infants tested experimentally.
    Fait partie de: Miyake, N.; Peebles, D. & Cooper, R.P., August 1-4, 2012, Sapporo (Japan), Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 737-742
    Identifiant: 978-0-9768318-8-4 (ISBN)